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General Nothingness Theory

© 1989 – 2007  Corey Kaup, Kaup Communications – all rights reserved

Table of Contents

Introduction

 

Chapter 1   The principle of unified forces

Equilibrium

Detectability

Existential Nothingness

The Life Cycle of Energy

Temporal Nothingness

Nothingness, Mechanical Physics and Relativity

General Relativity

Quantum Chaos

Summation

Chapter 2    The evolution of evolution

Conservation of Complexity

Constrained Infinity

Simultaneous Expansion and Contraction

Chapter III    Thought and Consciousness

 

Universal Principles

I. The principle of unified forces

II. The Conservation of Complexity

Special Definitions

Acknowledgments

 

 

Introduction

It’s a brisk fall morning in New York City. Wind blows dust and leaves around in little tornado shaped circles outside the windows of my 7th grade science class. As I watch the hypnotic swirling motion our teacher, Mr. Lobel, leans against the granite lab-table and poses this question: “Let’s say you put a piece of cork and a metal spoon in the refrigerator over night, which one will be colder the next day?” It seems like a trick question. “you're going to have to figure it out, we’ll talk about it tomorrow”. Of course none of us want to wait until tomorrow to get the answer, but Mr. Lobel can not be swayed.

I open the refrigerator at home and feel the milk carton – that’s pretty cold. I feel the cork on the wine bottle – not as cold. The coldest thing in the refrigerator is a wet piece of lettuce, but Mr. Lobel didn’t say anything about wet lettuce. I’m still not sure what the answer is, but I'm pretty sure it's the spoon. There's no way that cork can be colder than metal.

Most of us think it's the spoon. There are a few oddball cork-guys, but they have pretty lame ideas about why it's the cork, so Mr. Lobel finally resolves the mystery: "The cork, spoon and anything else hanging out in the refrigerator long enough will be of equal temperature". He uses this model to illustrate three profound ideas in physics:

One: there is no such thing as “cold”; there is only more or less heat. Cold is a matter of human perception. The metal spoon transmits heat away from the hand faster than cork so it feels colder.

Two: heat will try to even itself out. It will always go to where there is less heat until equilibrium is established.

Three: Heat is energy and energy is motion. The type of motion known as heat is the vibration of atoms and molecules.

This changed my perception of everything. It gnawed at my understanding of reality. How can heat just be wiggling atoms? Heat burns, melts, and boils. Why do the atoms wiggle in the first place? Why does the oscillation always even itself out?

I had unwittingly asked myself a question, the answer to which reveals a connection between the primary forces governing the behavior of the universe. I learned that the ubiquitous evening-out process I had questioned results in a state scientists call equilibrium. In the seventh grade experiment, had I actually gone to the trouble of putting a spoon and cork in the refrigerator, the internal refrigerator temperature would have disturbed the equilibrium between the spoon, cork, and their previously warmer environment. They would have spontaneously given up heat until thermal equilibrium was achieved with the surrounding refrigerator air.

There is a fourth profound idea in this experiment. Even without a rocket, or a cyclotron, or millions of dollars worth of exotic equipment it is possible to explore the universe. By showing us that the deep mysteries of life are revealed by observing everyday phenomena, Mr. Lobel opened the door to real freedom-of-mind. This is how the ancient Greeks invented modern science, mathematics, philosophy, and government. We are only just catching up to them now.

In this spirit, Nothingness Theory begins by investigating the significance of attraction to equilibrium via its role in the behavior of electromagnetism, gravity, and the two nuclear forces.

Chapter 1

The Principle of Unified Forces:

Equilibrium

Fourteen billion years ago there was no space, matter or time. There was no light, dark, emptiness or fullness. Suddenly all these things sprang into existence – the moment cosmologists call the “Big Bang”. Since then, space has been increasing relative to matter and matter has been filling in the increasing space.

Nothingness Theory provides a way to understand this seemingly impossible situation. All motion, including the expansion of the universe, is the result of a disturbance of equilibrium. By applying this simple viewpoint, it is possible to connect the laws and principles of physics via a single framework.

Imagine a motionless boat on a calm pond. The boat and pond are at rest in relation to each other. The law of inertia insures that this resting state will never change unless some external force disturbs the system's equilibrium. Subsequent to a disturbance, the boat will rock and the pond will ripple with waves. This motion inexorably returns the system to its resting state - a requirement of the law of entropy.

Every natural system exhibits this behavior, including the universe as a whole. Like its constituent sub-systems, the universe rocks back and forth between states of undetectable uniformity - states known here as perfectly symmetrical static equilibrium - nothingness. This viewpoint enables a new precision for defining terms such as "universe", "force", "existence", and "matter". This is accomplished by noting that for something to exist it must be detectable, and to be detectable it must be uneven relative to its surroundings and itself.

Detectability

Detectability is paramount in understanding ideas such as time, space, matter, and existence. Human perception is based on detectability, and scientific measurement is an extension of human perception. If something is not detectable, it is not something and it doesn’t exist. This clears up some confusion about space, time and so-called parallel universes.

The universe can be precisely defined as: anything that has been, or ever will be detectable by humans. It is the manifestation of temporal existence – composed of matter, energy, space, and time, and is the macro-system of which all natural systems are a sub-set. Therefore, there can be no such thing as something outside the universe, because if it can be detected, it is by definition, still within the universe. This logic requires that space be infinite, because any area outside the “edge” of the universe would still be space, still be detectable, and still be the universe. Any area inside the smallest particle[i] would still be space and still be the part of the universe.

This same logic requires that time be infinite. Time extends to the past infinitely because a time before time is still time since “before” is a time designation. This applies to the future as well because “after” is a time designation.

At any given moment, what we define as the universe is everything we are capable of detecting. Though we may encounter an ultimate limit of Detectability, this limit defines the boundaries of human detection, and not the boundaries of time and space.

The impossibility of a beginning or end to time and space means that the universe has and always will exist. Yet it has been observed that the universe emerged from nonexistence fourteen billion years ago. The answer to this riddle is that the universe actually emerged from undetectable uniformity - not nonexistence. This creates another paradox because it was established earlier that if something is not detectable, it is not something and it doesn't exist.

Existential Nothingness

Nothingness Theory accommodates this contradiction by distinguishing between relative nonexistence (nothingness) and absolute nonexistence. Nothingness is defined here as a state of perfectly uniform static equilibrium constituting relative nonexistence. A state that exists relative to absolute nonexistence but does not exist relative to temporal existence. Absolute nonexistence is defined as the absence of existence, the absence of nothingness, and the absence of absence. It is what is not being referred-to under any circumstances. Its definition is that which cannot be referred-to, named, or defined. It is the non-state to which everything including nothingness is attracted.

Despite the fact that referring to absolute nonexistence violates its definition, it must be referred-to anyway. There are many paradoxical ideas that must be dealt with in describing and modeling natural phenomena. Infinity, for example, must be invoked to complete many equations and to provide a complete view of complex behavior in natural systems. Yet infinity is by definition not achievable. In this way absolute nonexistence provides a frame of reference by which temporal existence can be better understood.

Nothingness Theory defines temporal existence as the constraint of infinite time and space within which human beings can exist. A state delineated from nothingness by virtue of non-uniformity and whose components are attracted to nothingness. It is the dynamic phase of existence whereas nothingness is non-temporal and non-dynamic. Thus existence is the finite aspect of an infinite process, the result of which is the detectable non-uniformity of matter and space.

If the perfect equilibrium of nothingness was stable, existence would settle into this state forever, and could never have come about in the first place. Absolute nonexistence provides the unachievable state to which nothingness is attracted, thereby driving the dynamic inflection of material existence (see "Creation in Nothingness Theory" by Msgr. Walter Niebrzydowski for theological commentary on this subject). This exchange can be seen in certain paradoxical phenomena such as those associated with a "black hole".

A black hole is created when a massive star exhausts the energy available within it to maintain enough wiggling of atoms to keep them from collapsing into a small area of uniform density. When enough matter collapses with enough force, it creates a central area of sufficient concentration to eliminate space. Were the universe ever to have achieved this state of nonexistence permanently, it could never have existed in the first place because “permanently” in this case means forever.

From the point of view of a black hole, it doesn't exist. The collapse of dimensionality via the joining of matter with itself to the elimination of space, prevents the possibility of Detectability. Detectability requires non-uniformity. A black hole is created when matter and space become concentrated so that there is no differentiation between them. The black hole is only detectable by its effect on the surrounding matter and space, which are inexorably forced to even-out the non-uniformity between them and the relatively nonexistent black hole. Space and matter disappear "into" the black hole at unimaginable velocities as they approach the event horizon.

To apprehend the full meaning of existence, nonexistence, energy, matter and force, one must embrace the paradox embodied in a black hole. The essence of a black hole is that it isn't there, but it has a location relative to existing systems upon which it exerts the most powerful cosmic force. It is an area of nonexistence that has no area. The so called super-massive black holes, apparently at the center of every galaxy, swallow up entire solar systems and yet contain nothing inside of them because they have no inside to fill up. A black hole is the pinnacle of perfectly symmetrical uniformity of matter, space, energy and time. With no detectable separation between matter and itself, it ceases temporal existence. 

So space/time – matter/energy can attain relative nonexistence by collapsing into infinite density, which is a uniform state of static equilibrium, but can never achieve absolute nonexistence.

The Life Cycle of Energy

Space and matter can also become uniform by dispersion. Dispersion on a cosmic scale is driven by the second law of thermodynamics, which creates the process known as entropy. Energy (motion) is required to assemble particles into atoms, atoms into molecules, and molecules into complex structures with the ability to accumulate mass. Entropy limits the life of energy by eventually reversing this process.

Energy enables the creation of complexity and structure in natural systems. Entropy ensures that having done so, that energy is no longer available to do any more constructive work. It also insures that the system will eventually come apart, returning its components to its surroundings.

We can follow the life cycle of energy by examining our own solar system. The sun is so differentiated from the space around it that the matter in it is moving at very high speeds to try to even itself out. Hydrogen ions are colliding with each other with such force that sometimes their electrons and protons fuse, creating neutrons. All the neutrons in the universe are here as the result of hydrogen ions colliding with each other.

When an electron and proton fuse, they gain density, lose energy and cancel charge. The extra energy is given up as nuclear radiation and heat. Some neutrons fly off into space and others are trapped in electron/proton systems, which become helium. The only difference between helium and hydrogen is that helium has a neutron in its nucleus, which requires an extra electron orbiting it to balance things out.

So some energy is stored as the extra density of the neutron. Some energy is stored by capturing an extra electron. This is the form of potential energy that is created from increased differentiation and organization. Some energy escapes into space in the form of light and cosmic radiation.

Amazingly, no heat is transmitted directly from the sun. The vacuum of space is just as effective an insulator as it is in a thermos bottle on earth. The energy that was heat at the surface of the sun is “encoded” as light. Infrared light is capable of turning back into heat when matter absorbs it. So some of the frenzied motion of hydrogen ions is released as light when the primary fusion reaction creates neutrons.

Most of the energy that drives the earth’s systems comes from this “waste” light from the sun. The sun’s infrared light provides virtually all the heat available on earth. It’s ultra-violet light supplies most of the energy used to create the complex amino acids that support life.

When the chlorophyll in plants absorbs ultra-violet light, its energy is stored as molecules of increased complexity. The chlorophyll molecules get shoved around by the ultra-violet waves causing them to form complex carbohydrates and proteins. These organic compounds are the food source for almost everything on earth.

When an animal eats a plant, the complex organic compounds that were formed by the ultra-violet light are broken down into simpler organic compounds, which are then absorbed by cells. The cells break them down to their simplest organic form, releasing the energy that made them complex in the form of heat, light and motion. Some of this energy becomes unavailable to do any more work because it becomes trapped in the random oscillation of atoms.

The resulting organic waste compounds are still fairly complex, as molecules go, so they still have some energy to give up. Some of the fats and oils will be burned for fuel. Some of them will collect in the earth and become oil, tar, gas, or coal (in a few million years). In a sense, almost all the energy recovered on earth is solar energy because almost all the organic compounds that became fuel were made from the energy stored by ultra-violet light striking chlorophyll molecules.

Once the fuel has been burned, all the energy that created its organized complexity is finally released. This is the final stage in the life of energy. All the burned energy diffuses out to become random oscillation of atoms. This energy is no longer available to do the work of differentiation and ordered complexity building.

When no energy is left to do work, the universe will no longer be delineated from its surroundings - nothingness. This is the state of nothingness at the opposite end of the universal cycle from the “Big bang”. There will either be another “Big bang”, or a “Big Crunch” – in which the universe collapses over the same period of time it took to expand into nothingness. The result of the collapse will be an infinitely dense singularity, which will explode into existence as it has and will, over and over forever.

Temporal Nothingness

The idea of cosmic contraction/expansion linked to gravity and entropy yields the special definition of time: Time is the measure of the universal progression of uniformity between matter and space, accomplished by counting equal, standardized divisions of a cyclical system of regular motion.

The universe is a pendulum. It swings back and forth between infinite density and infinite dispersion. Every swing is a tick. The resonant effect of this ticking can be traced all the way down to the rate of decay of radioactive elements, throwing off sub-atomic particles at regular intervals, millions of times per second.

The biological clocks in every living thing are driven by these nuclear oscillators and enable organic systems to measure the intensity, distance and direction of incoming stimuli. Humans are distinguished by awareness of time. We use it to construct a cumulative summation of events, the significance of which is related to when they happened. This is an internal story with a hero/protagonist called “self”. To accomplish this singular act of humanness, and the prerequisite planning and measuring that goes along with it, humans use time purposefully.

Given that detectability is at the basis of existence, time must be understood as the frame of reference for all measurement. Physics studies motion by objective measurement. The great discoveries of Galileo, Newton and Einstein were based on inventing new ways to objectively measure phenomena in a well-defined coordinate system. By understanding time as the by-product of the universe as oscillator, it becomes easier to see the connection between the discoveries of these great scientists.

Nothingness, Mechanical Physics and Relativity

The Nothingness Theory definition of physics is: the study of motion. To understand how and why things move is to understand the things themselves. All of the principles and rules of physics are rules about motion.

Isaac Newton discovered the first great fundamental rule of motion: F = MA - force equals mass times acceleration. This means that mass is that which force acts upon to create motion, force is that which can change motion, and acceleration is the change in motion caused by force influencing mass. Each thing defines the other and none is anything in-and-of itself. It also reveals a perfectly symmetrical and constant mathematical relationship between force, mass, and acceleration.

To measure the mass of something here on earth we weigh it. Until Galileo Galilee rolled metal balls of different weights down identical inclined planes, it was assumed that the heavier objects would fall faster. His discovery that weight has no effect on the rate of acceleration of falling objects (it is always 32ft. per second/per second straight down) changed our understanding of the cosmos and enabled Isaac Newton to form the basis for modern physics.

One way to measure force in this experiment is to attach a stationary scale to the falling object and measure the weight registered to stop the object. The amount that the scale indicator is deflected is always a product of the static weight of the object times how long it takes to stop it – F=MA.

Another way to measure the force needed to move an object is to put it in the scale and accelerate the scale and see how far the indicator deflects before the object starts moving, or put the scale in the way and measure the force and time required to stop the object. No matter how you do this F=MA.

From this relationship the fundamental laws of mechanical physics are derived. The law of inertia says that no object will change its motion unless force is applied. The amount of force applied accelerates the object at an inverse proportion to its mass – A=F/M (a derivative of F=MA). Every action has an equal and opposite reaction because force applies equally to the source and target. F=MA holds in both directions thus revealing an underlying symmetry to the laws of nature.

Keeping in mind that detectability is at issue here; static weight is a measurement possible only in the presence of gravity. An object will weigh nothing in space, one thousand times more on Jupiter than on earth, yet posses the same objective mass everywhere. If you eliminate gravity from the equation, it takes the same amount of force to accelerate an object relative to its mass no matter where it is. So if we attach an object in space to the scale, it will indicate an amount of weight commensurate with its mass when using the scale as the accelerator.

Thus mass is not weight, nor matter, nor solidity. It is neither size nor substance. It is defined by a relationship to force and motion. Visceral interpretations and assumptions must be suspended to grasp the profound nature of these matters. The elements of existence are detectable by their relationships to each other. Taken alone they don’t exist. This enables us to make an objective and self-consistent definition of matter: Matter is the detectable absence of space, to which it is attracted. By virtue of logical reciprocity: Space is the measurable absence of matter, to which it is attracted. In both cases, attraction to equilibrium is the underlying force. The dynamic result of these relationships on a macroscopic scale can be recognized in Albert Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity.

General Relativity

Albert Einstein created the General Theory of Relativity to solve the mystery of the constancy of the speed of light. In so doing, he revealed that everything in the universe, including space and time, is in motion. An observer attempting to measure the time, distance and speed of an event can only say what happened relative to itself as the frame of reference. There is no frame of reference in existence that is at rest (accept for absolute nonexistence). So with everything moving around all the time it is amazing to discover that the speed of light remains constant relative to the observer regardless of the observer’s motion.

If I am running straight towards you at ten miles an hour, and you are running towards me at ten miles an hour, we are approaching each other at twenty miles an hour. Even if I’m running towards a light ray at one hundred thousand miles per second while the light ray is approaching me at its constant one hundred and eighty six thousand miles per second, the light ray and I are still closing the distance by only one hundred and eighty six thousand miles per second. The same one hundred and eighty six thousand mile per second closing speed is maintained even if I am running away from the light ray.

Einstein’s astounding revelation was that space/time must be fluid, and mass/energy must contract space/time towards it relative to mass/density. He also discovered that mass/density increases with velocity at a rate of E=MC² (courtesy of the Special Theory of Relativity). So the faster you travel, the more massive you become, and the more massive you become, the more you bend space/time. Since light propagates through space/time[2], its velocity relative to you is affected by space/time curvature. As you accelerate, your increasing density bends space/time exactly enough to compensate for your velocity relative to light traveling away from or towards you.

This calls into question ones normal idea of space and time. It redefines matter and energy. General Relativity profoundly affects our understanding of reality. How can empty space have a shape? How can motion create mass? Detectability is still the issue here.

In the experiment where we are each running towards each other at ten miles per hour, we need to measure our independent speed and the closing speed. How do I know I am running at ten miles an hour? Why don’t I add the earth’s one thousand mile per hour rotation to my velocity? Everyone must agree beforehand that a frame of reference is considered to be at rest relative to me as we both spin with the earth. We must agree upon a way of counting standardized intervals (time in per/hour chunks with subdivisions) and connect that to standardized lengths (miles with subdivisions). Miles-per-hour becomes a kind of space/time.

This situation maintains its simplicity as long as we stay in the local coordinate system from yours or my subjective point of view, our agreed upon standards of measurement, and reasonable scales of time and distance (running on flat terrain within site of each other for a minute or less rather than thousands of miles apart for years).

If we mark off regular intervals between us and take accurate stopwatches we can simply time our progress between one marker and the next as we would mile markers on the highway to check our speedometers. From the point of view of light however, we would be traveling at different speeds depending upon the angle the light rays are approaching. This is because our increasing mass curves space/time in proportion to our speed relative to light. So the space/time ruler of miles per hour changes in proportion to how fast we are running relative to a given light ray.

The issue here is still detectability - as applied to objective measurement. There is no automatic guarantee of objective measurement. Objective measurement requires a frame of reference free of subjective variability. Newton required a frame of reference at rest. It was assumed that the center of the universe was at rest and that by extension one could make repeatable measurements using it as a true static frame of reference. Einstein somehow new that not even empty space was at rest and therefore a theoretical static center of the universe was not useful as an objective frame of reference.

Einstein’s approach was very direct; use light as the frame of reference. Its velocity relative to the observer stays the same in all circumstances. This endows light with an objectively dependable measuring capability. Light is the space/time ruler. That being said, his stunningly direct solution is that, if the observer’s velocity changes and light’s doesn’t, space/time itself must be changed by the motion of the observer.

Yet space in-and-of itself is nothing, and time is a human idea used for measurement. What objective, physical reality could possibly change about nothing and an idea? The answer is that physical, objective reality is constructed from human detection, and detectability requires non-uniformity. The only objective way to measure the amount of absent matter (distance) is with the universal constant known as the speed of light. This is accomplished by timing light waves, which propagate through space and therefore yield a self-consistent measurement of distance. The fact that time is required to detect and measure space is at the heart of the term “space/time”.

To understand Relativity it is essential to accept the fact that matter, space, and time only exist by relationship to each other. Relativity is a quantification and explanation of the principles governing this relationship on a macrocosmic scale. If you set a chunk of matter in motion, the shape of space/time will determine where it goes. If I throw a baseball straight away from me, it travels in a straight line through curved space/time. Space/time is curved towards the mass/density of the earth. The baseball eventually follows that curve until it hits the ground. The earth is flying in a straight line through space/time that is curved around the mass/density of the sun. The relationship of matter to space is that the “shape” of space determines where matter goes, and matter determines the shape of space.

Another way to picture this is by thinking of space as a riverbed and matter as the water. The shape of the riverbed is determined by the water flowing through it. The direction of the water determines the shape of the riverbed.

The Nothingness Theory explanation of this is that space is attracted to matter because it is under the influence of the one force driving all motion – the attraction to static equilibrium. To achieve this, space must combine uniformly with matter. Matter, under the same influence, must combine uniformly with space. The macrocosmic effect of this is called gravity. Matter must go in the direction of its greatest absence, which is the most concentrated local space/time. Space/time is concentrated by proximity to its greatest absence, which is in proportion to local mass/density. When static equilibrium is achieved, as at the center of a “black hole”, temporal existence ceases “within” the “black hole”. This state of relative nonexistence is termed here as “nothingness”.

Quantum Chaos

Newtonian physics works on a certain scale of size, distance, and time. Compared to relativity and sub-atomic phenomena, Newtonian mechanical physics is somewhere in the middle of the scale. Electromagnetism, and the nuclear forces operate at the border of detectable smallness. Relativity operates at the border of detectable bigness. Chaos Theory applied to the “big bang” theory explains why these scalar differences cause the one attractive force - existence to nonexistence - to behave differently at different scales of measurement.

Quantum mechanics began with the discovery that a solid body when heated does not increase its heat in a continuous, linear way. It jumps from one state of energy to another – quantum jumps. Atoms suddenly stop wiggling at a low amplitude and start wiggling at a higher one. Each higher or lower amplitude is mathematically predictable.

Electrons orbit their nucleus at a certain distance unless forced to change. Under the influence of force, an electron will simply cease to exist in its lower energy orbit and begin to exist in an orbit farther away. These quantum jumps obey exact mathematical rules. Why doesn’t the electron move continuously from one orbit to the other like a spacecraft flying up into a higher orbit over the earth?

Continuity is an illusion. It is simply more efficient not to see the space between atoms or the difference between varying hues of white light. It is more efficient not to hear ultra-sonic sound, and to sum-up the overtones of a vibrating string into a single note based on its lowest vibration. Human perception is a function of blocking out and sifting information. What’s left is then summed-up as a recognizable pattern of connected dots. Thus at certain scales of space/time it is not possible to detect discontinuity.

Yet discontinuity is the essence of existence. Existence is the result of its discontinuity from nonexistence. Matter is the result of its discontinuity with space. Energy is the result of matter trying to recombine itself with space and the fragments of itself separated by space. The relative expansion, contraction, and bending of space is the result of space recombining itself with matter. Human consciousness is the result of this pattern of activity somehow observing itself and unifying the picture by summing-up the pattern in the form of a story, with the observer/story-creator as the central character.

Thus continuity is a creation of efficient response to stimuli. Upon stepping out of our natural scale of existence, we are forced to see the underlying nature of existence – discontinuity. At a sub-atomic scale, we enter the world of quantum physics. This involves the study of atomic constituents and the constituent’s constituents. These are referred to as particles.

A particle in physics is any of the ultimate constituents of matter – such as an electron or proton. Nothingness Theory establishes that there can be no limit to size (big or small) and therefore no ultimate constituents. The more precise definition of “particle” is therefore: a discrete unit of matter with consistent characteristics unless divided or fused. Particles are phenomena. They are behavior. They exist by comparison to something else, and are detected by making them affect a system big enough for us to see.

Television is a ubiquitous electron detecting system. If you fire enough electrons at the phosphors coating the back of your TV screen, they will push the phosphor’s electrons into the higher energy state predicted by quantum theory. When the electron settles to its lower state – the state of greater equilibrium – it releases the extra energy in the form of light.

Light is a fluctuating quantum disturbance of space/time. It imitates the quantum disturbance of the electron, causing a radiating ripple of time and distance until it hits your eye, at which time it pushes electrons in the retina into a higher state of energy, similar to the phosphor’s electrons on the TV screen. The retinal nerve cell’s equilibrium is disturbed by the change in electrical charge across its membrane causing a flow of electrolytic fluids out of the cell, which propagates along the axon and dendrites until it disturbs the next cell. Eventually a heavily sifted and processed version of the pattern reaches the “interpreter” brain-module, which literally connects the dots (pixels - or picture elements in this case) forming them into a continuous image.

In aggregate, the effect of a sufficient number of sub-atomic particles (in the form of atoms and molecules) is to affect the next higher quantum scale of space/time. The jump from microcosmic to macrocosmic takes matter into the realm of gravity and out of the realm of electromagnetism and the nuclear forces. The new science of chaos theory provides the physical and mathematical models for this.

Given that the universe is the meta-system of which all natural systems are components, it is possible to learn how the universe works from natural systems on earth. Chaos theory pioneers, such as the meteorologist/mathematician Edward Lorenz, have discovered the physical principles governing complexity in natural systems. Instead of the traditional approach to science, where complexity is stripped away to reveal the components of a system, chaos theory studies the way the components of a system interact to accrue complexity.

Complexity in this context is defined as: The characteristic of a system endowing it with the capacity for infinite variation of motion and form. The way the universe and its sub-systems delineate themselves from their surroundings is by exchanging random (disordered) complexity for ordered complexity. This exchange is defined here as evolution. The return to diffuse, randomness is mediated by the second law of thermodynamics in which entropy limits the number of times energy can form complexity (the “work” of energy) thus sealing the fate of the universe, which is to re-achieve the state of uniform nothingness whence it came.

It is the scale of measurement that determines whether we see quantum discontinuity, unpredictable randomness, and convoluted space/time morphology – or linear predictable motion such as that of the sun and planets. Galileo and Newton used the sun and planets to construct a clockwork model of the universe. They did not have the technology to detect events outside of that space/time scale.

It is now known that the exact position of the planets and the shape of their orbits become absolutely unpredictable within a few hundred million years. It is the scale of space/time that determines whether the orbits are predictable or not. It is known, for the same reason, that weather systems become absolutely unpredictable beyond about five days. This discovery by Edward Lorenz in the early nineteen-sixties laid the foundation for chaos theory.

He wanted to make the simplest mathematical model of a weather system. He chose three interdependent variables; temperature, humidity, and barometric pressure. He programmed a crude computer to plot a graph based on the three-number relationships generated by calculating a particular ratio of one variable to the other. A given number for temperature would determine the number for humidity, which would determine the number for barometric pressure, which would determine the number for temperature – ad infinitum.

He noticed that the graphs exhibited patterns very much like a real weather system. One particular tracing interested him, so he entered the three numbers for that new starting point to re-run the graph. After a few seconds, the new graph started to diverge from the old one despite the fact that he had put in the exact same numbers to begin the calculation. After making sure that the computer wasn’t malfunctioning, he discovered that its calculations were based on several decimal points beyond the read-out, so he had entered numbers a thousandth of a percent different than the original. This was enough to make the result utterly unpredictable past a few hundred calculations. He realized that he had somehow created a simple mathematical relationship that matched the extreme sensitivity to initial conditions exhibited by real-world natural systems.

Sensitive dependence on initial conditions is seen in all natural fluid dynamic systems, such as weather systems. You try to gather all the measurements related to the state of a system at a given time so that you can calculate its behavior at some time in the future. If you miss the slightest measurement, your prediction will be limited to the very near future. It was assumed that with better technology, we would be able to establish the total weather conditions for a given area with such accuracy, that accurate prediction would be a matter of mathematical computation from that point forward. Lorenz proved that any system with a certain relationship of three interdependent variables is so sensitive to initial conditions, that it will become totally unpredictable over a relatively short period of time. He said that weather systems were so sensitive that a butterfly flapping its wings in China could set in motion a series of events resulting in a hurricane on the other side of the world a few weeks later – the often miss-quoted, misunderstood “butterfly effect”.

He meant that the butterfly is part of the measurement you would have to take to make an accurate prediction over time. You would have to take into account every wing-flap, breath, motion, everywhere on earth to recreate the so-called initial conditions with enough resolution to enable predictability beyond a few days. In other words, you would need to make an infinite number of accurate measurements all at once to get the total initial condition of a weather system regardless of its given size or location.

Thus infinite complexity is not only a feature of all natural systems, it has a simple mathematical model. This three-variable relationship is an immutable law of nature. It is a universal principle. Even if you take a single target – one piece of matter, and put it under the influence of three interdependent vectors, it will exhibit cumulatively complex and unpredictable variation of motion given sufficient input energy. When applied to the initial condition of the universe – the moment of the “big bang”, this model explains the divergence of the forces over scales of space and time.

The space/time scale is crucial. The evolution of the universe is driven by quantum scalar leaps, which are caused by scalar repetition. Nature does as little as possible to create complexity. Thus there is only one kind of matter – the absence of space – that behaves differently in different contexts.

Prior to the “big bang” matter and space are in the same place at the same time. Though this constitutes a state of nonexistence, we have proved that relative to absolute nonexistence, this state exists. It is assumed in Nothingness Theory that this discontinuity between relative nonexistence and absolute nonexistence pulls matter and space apart and regenerates the universe. Chaos theory shows how the simple division of matter and space is enough to create infinite variation of motion and form.

Imagine you are matter present at the first moment of the “big bang”. You are everywhere all at once because space/time is in the same place at the same time. Technically this is nowhere at all. Suddenly there is space between you and yourself and it is increasing at an unimaginable velocity. The moment that this happens there are an infinite “number” of you in the form of fragments that humans will someday call particles. That is because space increases relative to you in every direction at once from every direction at once. Space/time is after all every direction at once.

The laws of physics say that you must regain the equilibrium of perfect uniformity with yourself while, at the same time, gaining equilibrium with the totally uniform absence of yourself. Given that space is everywhere that you are not, the expansion of space happens in every direction from every direction at once. To go in every direction from every direction you must simultaneously expand, contract, spin, oscillate, and fly. As this process unfolds, it creates quantum scales of space/time – matter/energy systems.

The expansion of the universe requires contraction. The universe does not actually expand in the sense of a balloon blowing up into empty space. Empty space can only be contained within the universe. This is assumed from simple logic: There can be no outer edge to the universe because to be detectable, and therefore exist, there would have to be space on its outer aspect, that space would still be the universe.

Given that the universe is a self-referential system, contraction only happens by virtue of the reciprocal expansion of that which it is contracting from. The expansion of space involves the contraction of the density of matter. As a given clump of matter contracts, its mass/density expands. And the most massive known objects, black holes, contract to a state of relative non-existence at their uniform centers.

Now that you are particles, the N. T. definition of particle becomes important in understanding quantum scalar stratification. A particle is a discrete unit of matter with consistent characteristics unless divided or fused. Your characteristics are determined by your context vis-à-vis the point of view of a human observer.

The universe begins its cycle in a highly disorganized, high-energy state of relatively undifferentiated matter and space. The asymmetrical expansion/contraction of matter and space causes collisions between the newly discrete particles of matter. This causes a differentiation between matter and itself by virtue of local variations of the forces mediating the collisions. Space/time is twisted and warped in various ways depending on the nearby clumps of matter it pulled apart, fragmented, contracted, or directed into collisions. The newly shaped space/time further differentiates and organizes clumps of matter from surrounding clumps.

As the universe evolves, it produces quantum jumps of scale. It maintains all of them simultaneously. At the border of each scalar level there is chaotic activity. This is identical to the phase-change boundary of a fluid system. Water when heated in a container for example will become chaotic at the boundary between liquid and gas – the activity known as boiling. The simple circulation of rising hot water and descending cooled surface-water interrupts itself as the heat increases. The system’s trip to chaos at the surface follows the fluid dynamic modeling described by Lorenz.

At the boundary of the smallest scale of detectable phenomena, a chaotic boiling of nothingness will be found (a provable/disprovable prediction of N.T.). This is the echo of the phase change between nothingness and the sudden leap to temporal existence known as the “big bang”, which is the quantum leap upon which all others are based.

The characteristic of a simple cycle interacting with itself asymmetrically to generate infinitely variable patterns of motion and form is found in every natural system. It is the scale of measurement and position/condition of the observer that determines whether random chaos or recognizable patterns are seen. If you view a tornado from the right distance it looks like a tornado. If you view it from inside, it looks like random, high-energy noise. If you view the trajectory of a piece of particulate matter within the tornado, its course is labile and random. If you make a picture of the debris over time it forms a recognizable contracting spiral that looks like a tornado.

When you view sub-atomic particles over trillionths of a second, you are detecting the random phase of an unfolding space/time process. You are looking back in time to the interruption of space/time with itself. Depending on your position, detection device, and scale of measurement you will see more or less random motion. This gives the appearance of multiple dimensions at certain scales of space and time. At certain very small space/time scales, dimensionality seems to become infinite. Chaos theory reveals that every natural system has an analogue to this situation.

Just as dynamic interrelated cycles interrupting themselves are at the heart of rich natural motion, a simple shape interrupting itself in a repetitive pattern creates the infinitely rich forms seen in nature. This was discovered and subsequently modeled by the mathematician Benoit Mandelbrot. The mathematical model he developed is called Fractal Geometry.

His discovery is that to capture the essence of the topology of a natural system you need more than two, but less than three dimensions. The fractal dimension between two and three is a process rather than a fixed coordinate. It is a self-interrupting repetitive cycle based on the iteration of a three-term algorithm. Just as Lorenz discovered a way to model complex motion, Mandelbrot discovered a way to model complex form. Thus the richness of infinite complexity in natural systems is fully realized in the combination of non-linear flow equations and fractal geometry.

Nature does as little as possible to create infinite complexity. A simple branching shape interrupting itself creates a whole class of natural shapes, like lightning, river systems, nervous systems, plants, trees, circulatory systems, etc. - without some clue such as color or context it is impossible to tell what particular system you are looking at and at what distance.

This universal dynamic revealed by Lorenz and Mandelbrot is known as scalar repetition. Whether it is the repetition of a shape interrupting itself, or a cycle of motion causing itself to change asymmetrically, this process of iteration causes a recognizable repetition of behavior and form across observable scales.

River systems illustrate the relationship between non-linear dynamic flow and fractal topology. When water flows from a concentrated source such as a lake it fractures and shapes the earth over which it flows. The earth over which it flows determines where it goes. Where it goes shapes the earth, which shapes the flow. With sufficient energy, the water branches off. The branches diverge, creating more branches, some of which rejoin the main river. This process sheds the dis-equilibrium of water above sea level by storing it in the form of increasingly complex branching/flow systems. Any remaining energy will return the water to the sea – its original source. If you were to measure the total coastal area of this system you would have to measure it forever because branches continue branching at smaller and smaller scales with greater and greater convolution. The greater your resolution (smaller the scale) of measurement, the more you will measure. This means that a fractal coastline is an infinite surface within a finite area. This is called fractal iteration – a phenomenon beautifully modeled by Benoit Mandelbrot’s “Mandelbrot Set”.

We can return to the tornado as an example of scalar repetition. The sun warms the ground, the ground warms the air near it, the warm air rises into the sky where it displaces cooler air, which descends until it hits the ground and is warmed. This is an example of the middle scale of circulation going on in the fluid known as air. Some air circulates millimeters from the ground. Some air hitting the ground shoots out laterally, spinning some of the vertical circulations on their side. These microcirculations are fast, small-scale versions of the ground to sky circulation. Giant air masses, the size of small continents, circulate slowly around land and ocean masses. The entire mass of air surrounding the earth moves almost imperceptibly in relation to it.

Most of the time these circulations interrupt and diffuse each other. When they join together in a way that organizes and concentrates them, a massive dis-equilibrium is created. Storm clouds develop huge internal temperature differences, causing freezing upper air to fall at high speeds with tremendous energy, displacing the hot lower air and shooting it upwards. When conditions coalesce the massive lateral moving airstreams with the high-energy, vertical cloud circulation and inverted ground to cloud air pressure, the cloud circulation can get tipped on its side and begin a lateral circulation. To even out all this unequal air pressure, humidity, and temperature, the system sheds its energy towards the ground. The most efficient and stable way to do this is through a vortex.

This is the classical paradox of a chaotic natural system. A tornado is virtually the definition of chaos. Yet it is formed because the usual chaos of air circulation interrupting itself is reduced. Air circulation systems at multiple scalar levels join in an organized resonance of circulation. They create a simple recognizable pattern of motion that is so stable it is virtually impossible to stop. The vortex is the most stable dynamic system in the universe. There is a hurricane on Jupiter that has been there for millennia. It pre-dates human civilization. Several earths could fit inside of it.

The tornado is a momentarily viewable example of the prime activity going on in the fluid natural systems on earth. They circulate their components to shed energy. They do this at multiple scales of space/time. When a fluid system achieves perfect static equilibrium, it ceases to exist. It is therefore assumed in Nothingness Theory that attraction to nonexistence is the universal primary force.

This applies to the universe as a whole. It is a fluid system. Its container is absolute nonexistence. The components of the system – space and matter – attempt to fill the container in equal distribution. The main process at the beginning of the cycle is the creation of distance. Distance is the detectable characteristic of space/time the way mass is the measure of matter. Distance and mass determine each other.

Mass increases at an inverse proportion to the distance between matter and itself. Distance increases at an inverse proportion to the proximity of matter to itself. Matter can become so concentrated that distance is eliminated. When an area of infinite density (such as a black hole) is surrounded by systems still containing the separation of matter and space, a tremendous dis-equilibrium is created. Space/time and matter are inescapably attracted to the perfect uniformity of the relatively nonexistent black hole.

This is seen as a hurricane-like circulation of matter towards and “into” the black hole (the quotes highlight the fact that there can be no inside to a black hole given that space/time is absent “there”). At certain distances space is stretched and time is slowed. At the border between temporal existence and infinite density (the event horizon) space/time becomes chaotically convoluted and vast amounts of energy are released as matter gives up its last chance for motion. This convolution of space/time and the random high-energy behavior of matter exemplify the universe at the early stages of its “big bang” phase.

It is now possible for us to combine the mind experiments and system models to connect Quantum mechanics and chaos theory. These areas of study attempt to explain the nature of matter and space, establish the principles governing their behavior, and create models that enable us to understand and predict motion and form in a consistent way. The logic of Nothingness Theory reveals the universal behavior of matter and space common to both.

A meta-pattern emerges: Space and matter ultimately eliminate each other – but not permanently. This process takes place in cycles forever and involves the exchange of mass and energy, random and ordered complexity, and matter and space. It creates and destroys quantum scales of space/time, the borders of which have ordered-chaos, identical to the phase-change boundary of a fluid system. It is here that chaos and quantum theory are joined.

 The “big bang” is a quantum leap and phase-change. The quantum leap is that of nothingness to temporal existence. The phase change is that of static infinite density to maximally dynamic plasma. One can only visualize this situation and understand its consequences by accepting an impossible paradox and following it to its logical conclusion. Paradox: The universe is infinite in size and is expanding. Conclusion: Nothing can be bigger than infinity; therefore the universe is expanding in reference to itself by exchanging space/matter concentration for space/matter dispersion.

Human beings cannot detect infinity or perfectly symmetrical uniformity. We can measure what goes on in between by viewing phenomena over time. This creates a snapshot of a fragment of an infinite process. The relative size of the fragment and time over which it occurs determines the scale of view. From the human point of view, the moment of the “big bang” is the smallest scale of detectability. Smaller scales of interaction don’t exist for us because they cannot be detected.

At the beginning of the “big bang”, nearness characterizes that which is detectable. When all of space increases from the same place at the same time, it is creating every direction from every direction in every direction. So the center of the universe is expanding and diverging from itself. Any given point is therefore the center of the universe from its point of view. Given that the universe is expanding from an infinite “number” of nearby points simultaneously, it is interrupting itself. The asymmetry caused by the presence of matter delineates all the space/time interactions from each other. Where space/time borders meet, they flatten their topology the way the membranes of inflated balloons flatten when pressed against each other. When viewed at the right level of time and size, particles will obey the mathematical models of String Theory by propagating along the “flattened” membranous pathways.

Nothingness Theory predicts that the multi-dimensional topology modeled by String Theory will prove to be a particular window through which a chaotic process of dynamic flow and fractal iteration are viewed on their way to and from infinity. If this is true, the chaos models should merge mathematically with the String models. This aspect of N.T. is therefore testable by experiment and mathematical analysis.

Thus chaos theory and quantum physics are joined conceptually by noting that all natural systems contain both chaotic and regular dynamics, and that it is the scale of measurement that decides which is seen. Therefore it is assumed that the complexity of sub-atomic behavior is a function of the scale of measurement, and will submit to modeling by fractal topology and non-linear dynamic flow algorithms.  

Summation

The forgoing has established a Principle of Unified Forces:

All motion results from the attraction of existence to nonexistence. This has been proven in General Nothingness Theory via a logical framework:

1.       The universe began in a state devoid of space, time, matter and energy. It is moving towards a similar state of nothingness. In the context of infinite time, it has and will be doing this forever in the form of cycles of expansion and contraction. All natural systems echo this cycle.

2.       By virtue of the behavior of the universe and its sub-systems, it is valid to say that every action serves the ultimate purpose of creating total uniformity. It has been proven in General Nothingness Theory that total uniformity is a state of relative nonexistence (nothingness) and that this state constitutes the most complete possible equilibrium.

3.       No other singular force has been identified as present in all known interactions. It is therefore valid to say that attraction to static equilibrium (existence to nonexistence) is the primary force underlying the source of motion.

The attraction of existence to absolute nonexistence is seen as various kinds of attraction or repulsion depending on the scale and context of the system being measured. To achieve nonexistence, matter must become uniformly dispersed in space. Space must therefore be uniformly filled by matter to cease existence. This necessarily adds the repulsion of each to itself and precisely defines them: Space is the absence of matter; matter is the absence of space.

It has been established in General N. T. that the macrocosmic manifestation of this effect is evident in Albert Einstein’s principles of General Relativity, where space is curved by mass/density and matter is directed by space curvature. This is the attractive aspect of matter/space on a macrocosmic scale.

On a sub-atomic scale, electromagnetic charge and the nuclear forces reflect the attraction to uniform static equilibrium. At the smallest scales observable, quantum effects are seen because they are near the phase boundary of universal existence/nonexistence.       

Because infinite time prevents the possibility of achieving absolute nonexistence, the behavior of all natural systems can be traced to evolutionary cycles, where disordered complexity is exchanged for ordered complexity and returned to disorder again. These cycles pass through states of uniform static equilibrium, a state of relative nonexistence referred-to here as nothingness.

The realization of this conclusion employs the point of view that the universe is a thermodynamic system, the contents of which are everything everywhere for all time. Given that the universe is moving to and from perfectly uniform static equilibrium, and that its constituent subsystems are doing the same, it is assumed that attraction to uniformity is the primal attractor and source of the four forces identified in physics.


[i] A particle in physics is any of the ultimate constituents of matter – such as an electron or proton. Nothingness Theory establishes that space is infinite, so there can be no limit to size (big or small) and therefore no ultimate constituents. The more precise definition of “particle” is: a discrete unit of matter with consistent characteristics unless divided or fused.

 

 

Chapter 2

The evolution of evolution

Conservation of Complexity

Evolution as defined in N.T. is the universal progressive pattern of the exchange of disordered for ordered complexity in all natural systems. It is the orderly increasing delineation of a system from its environment. The universe and its constituent natural systems all develop under the same simple rules of evolution. These rules mainly govern the phenomenon referred to in N.T. as complexity.

Complexity is defined in N.T. as: The characteristic of a system endowing it with the capacity for infinite variation of motion and form. When matter becomes organized in a pattern distinct from matter around it, a system is born. This represents an exchange of disordered complexity for ordered complexity.

Because the universe is being analyzed here as a natural system, the definition of system is adjusted as follows: Elements interacting with each other and delineated from their surroundings. It is a system if it is detectably separate from nearby phenomena by virtue of unique behavior. Our solar system is differentiated from the surrounding galaxy by the detectable patterns of interaction between its elements - the sun and planets.

A thermodynamic system’s surroundings would normally be called its container. We are analyzing natural systems; so calling the surroundings a “container” is insufficient to describe its importance in all interactions. "Environment" is a more useful term to describe the container. The definition of environment is therefore adjusted as follows: Environment: is the immediate surroundings of a given system from which the system is delineated, upon which it is dependent, and to which it will return its component parts. 

“Before” the “Big Bang” there is no space or matter. There is nothing to be delineated except for existence devoid of its components. But it is delineated from absolute nonexistence. In this sense, absolute nonexistence is the surroundings, and therefore the environment of nothingness. Nothingness spontaneously becomes delineated from itself by the appearance of space, which is delineated by the reciprocal appearance of matter. Thus, nothingness becomes the surroundings and therefore the environment of the material universe.

The conservation of energy, the law of equal and opposite reaction, the transformation of mass into energy and energy to mass (E=MC²) and the discontinuity of particles and space/time described by quantum mechanics are all examples of the attraction of existence to non-existence in the context of infinite time and space. Given the fact that matter, energy and existence can never be lost, the only dynamic left is the exchange of one for the other. We must therefore add the principle of the conservation of complexity to the list of physical principles.

Energy is conserved by being stored as organized and differentiated matter; complexity is conserved by exchanging high-energy random interactions with increasingly organized and differentiated matter and space/time relationships. Entropy insures that eventually all the energy that is stored in the form of differentiation and organization will be released, redistributing matter/space/time evenly and thereby rendering them unable to continue temporal existence until the meta-force of absolute nonexistence forces differentiation again. Furthermore, the state of nothingness “prior” to the “Big Bang” is devoid of time, so there is literally no time during which complexity is not present.

Complexity is the simplification of infinity. It is a temporal snapshot of a meta-temporal process. Human beings are the photographers. The science of complexity - Chaos Theory - establishes that three interacting forces create complexity. For example: an infinite number of colors can be created from red, green, and blue light. An infinite variation of shapes can be created in three dimensions of space. An infinite variation of motion patterns is possible when a target is under the influence of three forces.

All natural systems are complexity exchangers. They exchange the infinite complexity of random undifferentiated phenomena by organizing it into complex interrelated systems of well-delineated patterns of motion and form.

Roiling amorphous waves of water become river systems. Shapeless masses of air collide and become hurricanes. Amino acids get churned up in the primordial sea and become life. All these things share the same rules of ordered complexity accumulation – the process we call evolution.

Thus there are two ends to complexity exchange: the accumulation of ordered complexity and the random motion of matter. Humans call the former evolution, and the latter chaos. We interpret the process as having a direction through time pointing towards increasing order. In actuality there is a dynamic balance through quantum scales of space/time between the two. When analyzing evolution it is therefore essential to keep in mind that it is at one end of a bi-polar process. This process is a universal physical principal established here as Conservation of Complexity.

Conservation of Complexity: The exchange of ordered and dis-ordered complexity of motion and form in all natural systems.

Constrained Infinity

Temporal existence occurs between the phases of nothingness via constrained infinity. Infinity is automatically constrained by the fact that it can never be achieved. It can only be a potential in the context of temporality. Space and matter interact with the potential for infinite variation. They are constrained to interact under the influence of three forces:

1.       The attraction of each to absolute nonexistence

2.       The attraction of each to relative nonexistence

3.       The repulsion of each to itself

Three forces are enough to produce infinite variation of form and motion and are constrained to act only upon matter and space. It is this situation that drives the evolution of the universe and its constituent sub-systems.

If space and matter were only repelled by themselves and attracted to each other they would simply contract to infinite density and remain there forever (like a black hole). Why doesn’t the universe stay crunched into an infinitely dense equilibrium like every black hole within it?

The answer uses an assumption in physics, that the physical laws apply everywhere all the time. If three forces are necessary to create complexity in any system, and the universe started out in a state of non-existence – no space, no time, no matter – where were the three forces and on what did they act? N.T. assumes that the same singular force and its resultant two secondary forces that brought about the existence and evolution of the universe, act on every observable system today. If this is true, every natural system is most simply understood by applying the idea that its behavior is motivated by attraction to its own relative absence.

Sound when considered as a system illustrates part of this idea. Sound is the fluctuation of air pressure. The rate at which air pressure fluctuates is called the frequency – measured in hertz or cycles per second. The amount of pressure is called the volume, amplitude or loudness. When air pressure is uniform, the system is in a state of equilibrium and there is no sound. When air molecules bunch up as compared to the uniform state, the pressure is positive. When the molecules are pulled farther apart as compared to the resting state the pressure is negative. If they are pushed and pulled with sufficient force at thirty to eighteen thousand times per second, they produce sound within the range of human perception.

During every cycle between positive and negative air pressure, the sound passes through relative non-existence at the points where air pressure equals ambient levels. At these points, sound exists relative to steady silence, but ceases to exist relative to itself. Ultimately, the sound returns to the static equilibrium from which it came and to which all things are unavoidably destined.

This is the arc of birth and death. The universe and all of its sub-systems are born, use energy to acquire complexity, and die by returning their component parts to the environment. On the way they use up energy to redistribute matter evenly throughout the universe (the process called entropy).

This process is infinite because time and space can never achieve absolute nonexistence. It is constrained by the existence of existence, which is by nature finite. Thus space and time are the finite constraint of an infinite meta-process making possible the detectable universe in which humans can exist.

Simultaneous Expansion and Contraction

Constrained infinity causes simultaneous expansion and contraction in all natural systems. Imagine walking in a circle. As soon as you leave your starting point you are approaching it from behind you. Thus you expand the distance from your initial position while simultaneously contracting your distance from that same point. As you set off on a walk around the spherical earth, you expand your distance from the starting point while contracting your distance from that same point by approaching it from the other side of the world. The difference is that there are an infinite number of possible pathways around the three dimensional sphere while only one around the two dimensional circle. The same is true of flying into space. As soon as you leave the ground, you are approaching yourself from behind because of the curvature of space/time but there is an infinite distance to travel before you return to your starting point.

Most significantly, accumulation of complexity leads to the uniform distribution of matter and space, which is the simplest state of existence – nothingness. So the expansion of ordered complexity involves the simultaneous contraction of ordered complexity. This innate juxtaposition in natural systems is an essential component of the engine driving the process of evolution and a measurable aspect of Conservation of Complexity.

Summation

Evolution is the constructive aspect of Conservation of Complexity. It is the polar opposite of entropy. The resulting exchange of ordered and dis-ordered complexity of motion and form generates the dynamic aspect of existence. 

 

Chapter III

Thought and Consciousness

The essence of thinking is that it unifies disparate behavior. Any move towards uniformity is a move towards equilibrium, so human thought approaches equilibrium by summing up complex patterns of behavior, conceptually unifying them. Thinking is the mechanical system that processes logic, information, and organizes behavior, but it does not generate these things. Organized behavior in natural systems, and the logic and information underlying it result from the rules of existence. Nothingness Theory distills the essence of these rules by noting that a single motivator, attraction to equilibrium, is sufficient to generate the patterns of behavior common to the universe and all of its constituent systems.

The self is the conceptual equilibrium to which the trillions of mind/body systems of an individual human are attracted. Hundreds of brain/mind modules work together in a social network to achieve this unifying process. In his book "The Social Brain" Dr. Michael Gazzaniga reveals how he discovered this network over many years of  experiments with people who's corpus colosum was severed. The corpus colosum is a cable of nerves connecting the left and right hemispheres of the brain. This afforded him the unique opportunity to communicate with a person's left or right cerebral hemisphere without the other knowing about it.

He discovered a uniquely human brain/mind system in the left hemisphere that he dubbed "The Interpreter". The interpreter creates the self by summing up the behavior of all the parts of body and mind into a single character and attributing all thoughts and actions to that self/character - somewhat like an avatar in computer games.

For example: Dr. Gazzaniga showed a picture of a horse to a patient's left eye (connected only to the right hemisphere). He then told the patient to draw what he saw. The left hemisphere - in charge of speaking - said "I didn't see anything". The right hemisphere - in charge of the left hand -  tried to draw a horse with the left hand. When asked about the drawing, the patient (left hemisphere) said "I drew an elephant" and made up a reason why.

Thinking modules organize and process information and actuate behavior. The Interpreter module assigns meaning and reasons to those thoughts and actions in the context of an unfolding story with itself as hero/protagonist. This is the ultimate form of unifying summation because the self is the sum of everything that occurs within and around the body it represents.

Awareness

While thought is the physical process of summing patterns of mind/body systems, Consciousness is the experiencing or awareness of the holistic result.  These processes only become meaningful when experienced. The definition of consciousness includes thoughtful awareness of one's self. It also is defined as the aspect of mind that is apart from the physical or material.

 

- to be continued - 

 

Acknowledgments

Nothingness Theory is dedicated to the memory of my mother Janet Robin. I also thank my grandmother Florence Robin (Nonnie to me). They both died way too young – exactly twenty years apart, to the day. I thank Grampy (Manuel Robin) for patiently teaching me the mystical truth about forces hidden inside the bowling ball - and everything else. I thank Gail Quinn for her editorial supervision and teaching me how to write properly and precisely. I thank Father Joseph Baker; Msgr. Walter Niebrzydowski (Father Walter) and Gail Quinn for helping me rebuild my life after the delayed reaction to my mother’s death five years after the fact. I thank my dad Paul R. Kaup for moral and financial support for the last few decades and Eileen Anderson for keeping him happy and healthy. I thank the late Dr. Robert N. Zitter for planting the scientific seeds for Nothingness Theory and I thank his wife Theresa for supplying me with his unpublished works. I thank three great psychologists for enabling me to overcome some pretty nasty mental illnesses: Vitold Guardian, the late Beverly Zbuska, and her mentor Dr. June Blum. I especially thank Dr. Blum for giving me the education I missed in school and the tools with which to make a good life for myself. Nothingness Theory is based in great part on what I learned from these beautiful people.


Universal Principles

 I. The principle of unified forces

All motion results from the attraction of existence to nonexistence. This has been proven in General Nothingness Theory via a logical framework:

1.       The universe began in a state devoid of space, time, matter and energy. It is moving towards a similar state of nothingness. In the context of infinite time, it has and will be doing this forever in the form of cycles of expansion and contraction. All natural systems imitate this cycle.

2.       By virtue of the behavior of the universe and its sub-systems, it is valid to say that every action serves the ultimate purpose of creating total uniformity. It has been proven in General Nothingness Theory that total uniformity is a state of relative nonexistence (nothingness) and that this state constitutes the most complete possible equilibrium.

3.       No other singular force has been identified that is present in all known interactions. It is therefore valid to say that attraction to static equilibrium (existence to nonexistence) is the primary force underlying the source of motion.

The attraction of existence to absolute nonexistence is seen as various kinds of attraction or repulsion depending on the scale and context of the system being measured. To achieve nonexistence, matter must become uniformly dispersed in space. Space must therefore be uniformly filled by matter to cease existence. This necessarily adds the repulsion of each to itself and precisely defines them: Space is the absence of matter; matter is the absence of space.

It has been established in General N. T. that the macrocosmic manifestation of this effect is evident in Albert Einstein’s principles of General Relativity, where space is curved by mass/density and matter is directed by space curvature. This is the attractive aspect of matter/space on a macrocosmic scale.

On a sub-atomic scale, electromagnetic charge and the nuclear forces reflect the attraction to uniform static equilibrium. At the smallest scales observable, quantum effects are seen because they are near the phase boundary of universal existence/non-existence.       

Because infinite time prevents the possibility of achieving absolute nonexistence, the behavior of all natural systems can be traced to evolutionary cycles, where disordered complexity is exchanged for ordered complexity and returned to disorder again. These cycles pass through states of uniform equilibrium or relative nonexistence. This is the state known here as nothingness.

In aggregate, this evidence leads to the conclusion that the underlying force in all interactions is the attraction of existence to nonexistence. This conceptually unifies the forces and therefore constitutes a principle of unified forces.

 II. Conservation of Complexity

The exchange of ordered and dis-ordered motion and form in all natural systems preserves complexity.

Complex motion decreases in proportion to complex form. The dissolution of complex form results in the proportional  increase of complex motion. Complexity of motion increases in proportion to disorder (randomness). Complexity of form increases in proportion to the decrease (constraint) of  random motion.



[1] A particle in physics is any of the ultimate constituents of matter – such as an electron or proton. Nothingness Theory establishes that there can be no limit to size (big or small) and therefore no ultimate constituents. The more precise definition of “particle” is: a discrete unit of matter with consistent characteristics unless divided or fused.

 

[2] The idea that light propagates through space/time is specific to Nothingness Theory. Light is assumed to be a radiating quantum disturbance of space/time created by the motion of certain particles. This is how electromagnetic energy is conducted through space. It is the scale of interaction taking place that determines whether gravity or radiation is affected. This requires commentary by physicists because it is not the standard way of describing electromagnetic radiation.

 
 

 

Comments on Dr. Michael Gazzaniga's “The Social Brain”

Only humans are subjective. Some of the higher mammals have logic, memory and sophisticated abstract thought processes, but none of them have a history. They cannot be the subjects of their own lives because they do not have a timeline on which to place the characters. The human mind, by contrast, views itself as being in the midst of an unfolding story in which it is the main character. It interprets its own behavior and that of the external environment in this context.

This part of the human mind was discovered and isolated by Dr. Michael Gazzaniga during his experimental attempts to find out if there were side effects from severing the Corpus Colosum (the cable of nerves connecting the right and left hemispheres of the brain). He called this uniquely human brain module “The Interpreter”.

In his landmark book “The Social Brain”, he showed how the human brain is actually a society of brain/mind modules. They are distributed asymmetrically about the right and left hemispheres and interact to construct a pattern of responses to stimuli commensurate with survival. The “Interpreter” ascribes this behavior to its “self”.

Rather than experiencing the environment directly, the human brain creates a virtual world in which the self is hero/protagonist. All human perception involves screening and interpreting stimuli. The Interpreter module attempts to unify the aggregate interpretations of hundreds of brain/mind modules by encapsulating them in an ongoing story about itself. It does this by assigning meaning and reason to events over time. This is human thought. It is the human version of consciousness. It is the tip of an infinite iceberg.

- to be continued -
 

 

Theological Commentary by Msgr. Walter Niebrzydowski

Creation in Nothingness Theory

Nothingness is relative non-existence.  Absolute non-existence is postulated by the logic of the theory.  Theologians pick up from here and say that absolute non-existence is the closest science can get to what they would call the Fullness of Existence, which is God.

Then, the explanation why there is something rather than nothing is that relative non-existence (nothing) is attracted to the Fullness of Existence.  This process creates something, and so the Fullness of Existence in theological terms is the Creator.

Also God is conceived as the Being whose essence is to exist.  That’s why He is absolute.  All other beings are contingent participations in Absolute Being.  By the way, only theology permits us to address God as He, a personal being who creates out of love.  In philosophy Absolute Being is still an It.

You should know that the technical Medieval Latin term for creation is creatio ex nihilo (“creation out of nothing”).  Nothing meant no pre-existent matter.  This is an advance over the Genesis account where God’s creation is portrayed as creating order (cosmos) out of pre-existent chaos (the tohu-wabohu in Hebrew).

Also, creation is not to be conceived as a single act.  Creation is exercised by maintaining or preserving in existence whatever is.  Theology next postulates divine providence, which guides and directs the evolutionary process without interfering with natural laws.  The attractor of chaos theory and information theory is indicative of this underlying order, which emerges over time.

For more of Fr. Walter's Versus Verses "Proems" go to: http://www.epiphanyrcchurch.org/versus.html


 

Is there a Unified Field Theory contained in N. T.?

 

PostPosted: Mon Dec 01, 2003 10:35 am on Nothingness Theory Forum   Post subject: Does Nothingness Theory contain a unified field theory?


No. (I'm posing this question to myself because as of 12/1/03 I'm still the only two members of this forum.)

A true unified field theory requires a mathematical model verifiable by experiment and reviewed by the scientific community.

The Principle of unified forces at the beginning of General Nothingness Theory is generated by N.T.'s basic premise that the dynamic behavior of all natural systems is driven by attraction to equilibrium.

This situation begs inquiry. Is it true that the motion of everything everywhere is motivated by some form of unevenness? Does the motion of particles, singular or aggregate, ultimately serve the purpose of resolving an uneven local condition?

If the answer is yes, it is valid to say that attraction to equilibrium is a singular force underlying electromagnetism, gravity, and the weak and strong nuclear forces. This yields a universal principle of unified forces supporting the logical structure of Nothingness Theory.

The Unified Forces idea may be useful to serious scientific inquiry as a different way of looking at the problem of joining the forces. Nothingness Theory suggests experiments and types of mathematical models for the solution to this problem. The author is not equipped to render such sophisticated work. Not even Einstein solved the unified field problem, and I'm no Einstein.

I would be happy to work with physicists and mathematicians interested in research along these lines. I would also be grateful for criticism of N.T. and any of its associated material.

- Corey